High-intensity exercise for health
Lack of time is one of the main reasons why people do not exercise enough. Recent findings suggest that long duration of moderate intensity exercise can be replaced with short duration high-intensity interval training (HIT), and the health benefits seem to be comparable between these two. However, there are still many open questions such as, whether HIT is tolerable and effective in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and how HIT affects on fat metabolism and fat accumulation in different tissues, and in interplay between fat and glucose metabolism. We will investigate these issues in HIT training intervention studies in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by using moderate noninvasive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). When successful, this project will lead to remarkable possibilities to prevent and treat diseases and public health benefits.
Saanijoki T, Nummenmaa L, Eskelinen JJ, Savolainen AM, Vahlberg T, Kalliokoski KK, Hannukainen JC. Affective responses to repeated sessions of high-intensity interval training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, in press.
Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP, Eskelinen JJ, Savolainen AM, Kapanen J, Heinonen IH, Hautala AJ, Hannukainen JC, Kalliokoski KK. Autonomic function predicts fitness response to short-term high-intensity interval training. Int J Sports Med, in press
Eskelinen JJ, Heinonen I, Löyttyniemi E, Saunavaara V, Kirjavainen A, Virtanen KA, Hannukainen JC, Kalliokoski KK. Muscle-Specific Glucose and Free Fatty Acid Uptake after Sprint Interval and Moderate Intensity Training in Healthy Middle-Aged Men. J Appl Physiol, 118:1172-1180, 2015.
Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP, Eskelinen JJ, Savolainen AM, Kapanen J, Heinonen IH, Huikuri HV, Hannukainen JC, Kalliokoski KK. Cardiac Autonomic Function and High-Intensity Interval Training in Middle-Age Men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 46:1960-1967, 2014.
Regulation of skeletal muscle and myocardial blood flow and metabolism during acute exercise
One of the main topic of our research has been to study the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle blood flow and metabolism. Properly directed and adequate blood flow into the working skeletal muscles is one of the fundamental factors determining the nutrient oxygen delivery to muscle cells. We have mainly used positron emission tomography in one-leg exercise setting to investigate the role of different vasodilators and physiological stimuli in the regulation of blood flow.
Heinonen I, Kudomi N, Kemppainen J, Kiviniemi A, Noponen T, Luotolahti M, Luoto P, Oikonen V, Sipilä HT, Kopra J, Mononen I, Duncker DJ, Knuuti J, Kalliokoski KK. Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart. Basic Res Cardiol, 109: 413, 2014.
Rudroff T, Weissman JA, Bucci M, Seppänen M, Kaskinoro K, Heinonen I, Kalliokoski KK. PET imaging detects greater blood flow and less blood flow heterogeneity in the exercising skeletal muscles of old compared with young men during fatiguing contractions. J Physiol, 592:337-349, 2014. PubMed
Heinonen IH, Wendelin-Saarenhovi M, Kaskinoro K, Knuuti J, Scheinin M, Kalliokoski KK. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 305:H163-172, 2013. PubMed
Heinonen IH, Kemppainen J, Kaskinoro K, Peltonen JE, Sipilä H, Nuutila P, Knuuti J, Boushel R, Kalliokoski KK. The effects of adenosine, exercise, and acute moderate hypoxia on energy substrate utilization of human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 302:R385-390, 2012. PubMed
Muscle function during exercise
Masood T, Kalliokoski K, Bojsen-Møller J, Magnusson SP, Finni T. Effects of 12-Week Eccentric Calf Muscle Training on Muscle-Tendon Glucose Uptake and SEMG in Patients with Chronic Achilles Tendon Pain. Journal of Applied Physiology, 117: 105-111, 2014.
Masood T, Bojsen-Møller J, Kalliokoski K, Sarja N, Äärimaa V, Magnusson SP, Finni T. Differential Contributions of Ankle Plantarflexors during Submaximal Isometric Muscle Action: a PET and EMG Study. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 24:367-374, 2014
Rudroff T, Kalliokoski KK, Block DE, Gould JR, Klingensmith WC III, Enoka RM. PET/CT Imaging of Age- and Task-Associated Differences in Muscle Activity During Fatiguing Contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology, 114:1211-1219, 2013. PubMed
Kalliokoski KK, Boushel R, Langberg H, Scheede-Bergdahl C, Ryberg AK, Doessing S, Kjaer A, Kjaer M. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise. Frontiers in Physiology, 2:75, 2011. PubMed
Bojsen-Møller J, Losnegard T, Kemppainen J, Viljanen T, Kalliokoski KK, Hallén J. Muscle use during cross country skiing evaluated by positron emission tomography. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(6):1895-1903, 2010. PubMed